The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. Imperium Romanum, Imperium Romanorum; Greek:
Now we turn to the war of the Church against Muslims in Europe.
This war went on for quite some time in fits and starts — from the time the Muslim Moors arrived in Spain in It took a long time for the Christians to vanquish them. The first Muslim stronghold to fall was Toledo in ; the last was Granada in As the Christian re-conquest gained momentum, Jews in these newly re-conquered Christians territories began to suffer from increasingly harsher persecutions.
In their blood-thirsty vengeance against the Muslims, the Spanish Christians included the Jews, whom they put in the category of infidels.
In 14th century Barcelona, for example, the whole Jewish community was murdered by a rioting mob. First given shelter by some Christians, these Jews were pressured to convert. Those who did not were refused protection. Netanyahu in his 1,page work, The Origins of the Inquisition, quoting an eyewitness account of the time: Estimates rage between tens of thousands to as many asSee The Origins of the Inquisition, p.
Many of those who converted did so only outwardly, continuing to practice Judaism in secret. In due time, the Christians caught on to these phony conversions and decided to root out the heretics. We should note, however, that the very first Inquisition actually took place in under orders from Pope Gregory IX to combat a group of French-Christian heretics called "Albigenses.
Not so the Spanish Inquisition which was directed against Jewish "heretics". Unlike its earlier version, the Spanish Inquisition sought to punish Jews who had converted to Christianity but were not really "sincere" in their conversions.
There is a great deal of irony in this. First you tell people they have to convert or die, then, when they do convert, you decide to kill them anyway because their conversions are not "sincere. Once Jews converted to Christianity they had an open access to the playing field, economically and politically.
And, of course, they prospered mightily. That engendered a lot of hostility from the Christians — a pattern we have seen in Jewish history ever since the enslavement of the Israelites by the Egyptians. Derogatorily, Jewish converts to Christianity were called converses meaning "converts," or worse yet marranos, meaning "pigs.
That was certainly often the case. There were large numbers of Jews who would be outwardly Christian but who would continue to practice Judaism secretly. Until this day, there exist Christian communities with clear Jewish roots dating back to this time.Essay about The History and Culture of the Aztec Empire - The Aztec Empire was the most powerful Mesoamerican kingdom of all time.
They dominated the valley of Mexico in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Aztecs were an advanced and successful civilization that built beautiful, sophisticated cities, temples, and pyramids.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and .
The American Empire. By Wade Frazier. Revised July Purpose and Disclaimer.
Timeline. Introduction. The New World Before “Discovery,” and the First Contacts. The rise of the Aztec Empire Essay by brad_g, High School, 11th grade, A-, August download word file, 5 pages download word file, 5 pages 8 votes/5(8).
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The Aztecs migrated from the north into the valley of Mexico, around the twelfth century as told by Gruzinski, in The Aztecs Rise and Fall of an Empire. Religion was very important in Aztec life.