In Februaryscientists revised the estimate of the magnitude to 9. A study estimated a magnitude of Mw 9. This quickly elevated the height and increased the speed of waves, destroying the nearby Indonesian town of Lhoknga.
By Allison Mills On Dec. A wall of water and debris slammed the shores of South Asia; some witnesses described it as sounding like a freight train.
Tourists and locals alike scrambled to safety inland and atop tall hotels, recording videos of the surging water that inundated their communities. Many were unable to reach higher ground. This December marks the 10th anniversary of the natural disaster that killed more thanpeople, displaced millions and destroyed entire coastlines.
Over the past decade, the Indian Ocean tsunami and its aftermath have driven researchers and governments worldwide to improve tsunami warning systems and led to the creation of the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System. The Epicenter The tsunami reached heights of more than 30 meters in some places around the Indian Ocean.
Witnesses say the surge of water was like a flood rather than a wave. Earthquakes, the primary cause of tsunamis, are common throughout the countries rimming the Indian Ocean; the broad tectonic setting is primed for them as the Indian and Australian plates move north, colliding with the Eurasian Plate.
The effects of extensive thrust faulting carry over to many other microplates nearby, and some local geologic settings are more active than others. Indonesia is one such earthquake hot spot: Magnitude-7 and above quakes occurred frequently throughout the s, including three events over magnitude 8.
The chain of islands sits along the Sunda Trench, which is formed mostly by subduction of the Indian and Australian plates under the Eurasian Plate. Thrust-faulting here caused the December earthquake — releasing centuries of pent-up energy. The Sumatra-Andaman quake registered at a magnitude greater than 9 some estimates range as high as 9.
Aftershocks continued through February across a zone that stretched more than 1, kilometers. The hypocenter of the earthquake was 10 kilometers below the surface and about kilometers offshore of Sumatra.
Witnesses in the Indonesian city of Banda Aceh, with a population of more than , reported five to six minutes of violent shaking and a few collapsed buildings during the main quake the aftershocks caused more damage with subsequent, repeated shaking. The Waves The Dec. The tsunami waves hit 11 countries around the Indian Ocean, stretching from Indonesia to India to Somalia.
Unlike common wind- or current-driven waves, tsunamis do not travel with a rolling motion but rather with a vertical up-and-down pattern. This is because the ground motion during the earthquake displaces waterpushing the water column up and out of the way, and traveling across the ocean at speeds of to 1, kilometers per hour, about the same as a commercial jet.
In deepwater, this fast-traveling wave is hardly noticeable; the displacement causes a small wave just a meter or so high. But this changes drastically as the tsunami approaches shore: Because the wave propagates through the whole water column, when it enters shallower water, it compresses, slows and rises up, packing its energy into less water.
Sometimes, as was the case in the Indian Ocean inthe pull of this rising wave is so great that the water recedes from beaches.
This can be like a high tide moving in quickly but with minimal flooding, or it can be a wall of destruction that crashes inland for hundreds of meters. While dramatic, this first wall of water is not always the most dangerous.
Tsunamis are usually part of a series of waves, called a tsunami wave train. In Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and other countries close to the epicenter, huge waves washed over coastlines.
The tsunami towered at 30 meters tall and sometimes higher, but witnesses say the waters were less wave-like and more like the surge from a powerful river or a sudden flood. The waves swallowed boats offshore, tore up docks and washed over beaches within a minute, pushing debris farther inland into populated areas.
Hotels, shops, homes and streets were flooded and ripped apart as cars, trees and parts of other buildings slammed into them. The force of the water and the debris created treacherous, fast-moving currents.
These currents were just as strong when the tsunami waves retreated, drawing many people out to sea. The Aftermath Satellite imagery shows before and after shots of coastal agriculture near Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
In low-lying coastal areas, the destruction reached hundreds of meters inland and damaged thousands of kilometers of coastline. The death toll reached nearlylives. A number of foreign tourists were killed, especially in Thailand, although most victims were locals. Severe damage to roads and to electrical, communications and other infrastructure made providing relief to impacted areas difficult.
In some places, drinking water was also contaminated, further impacting survivors. In total, about 1. Many lost their livelihoods when their shops, homes, fishing gear and other belongings were destroyed. Coastal vegetation, coral reefs and other natural features were destroyed or damaged during the tsunami too.
Animal deaths, however, were reportedly low ; some researchers think this is because animals are more sensitive to their environments and can detect subtle shifts caused by earthquakes.Indian Ocean Earthquake and Destructive Tsunami Waves Words | 20 Pages event in the deep ocean; it simply has a much smaller amplitude (wave heights) offshore, and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometres long), which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a passing "hump" in the ocean.
Indian Ocean earthquake Animation of the tsunami caused by the Indian Ocean earthquake showing how the tsunami radiated from the entire length of the 1, kilometer ( mi) rupture AN ALTERNATIVE VERSION without the Malaysia jerk and with an end-pause ~ Veledan • Talk.
The Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (also called the Boxing Day tsunami) was a devastating catastrophe that 8 Indian Ocean Tsunami: 10 Years On Insurance penetration in the affected areas was generally but for very few of whom it would have been a disastrous event.
On Dec. 26, , a magnitude earthquake ruptured the seafloor off Indonesia, sending the most destructive tsunami in recorded history across the Indian Ocean.
A wall of water and debris slammed the shores of South Asia; some witnesses described it as sounding like a freight train. The Great Earthquake and Tsunami of 26 December in Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean. The Great Tsunami of 26 December in the Indian Ocean.
The great earthquake of December 26, was extremely damaging and resulted in many deaths. However, most of the destruction and deaths were caused by the catastrophic .
The December 26, Indian Ocean tsunami was caused by an earthquake that is thought to have had the energy of 23, Hiroshima-type atomic bombs.
The epicenter of the magnitude quake was located in the Indian Ocean .